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Liga para a Protecção da Natureza - Projectos LIFE
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Projectos LPN » Projecto LIFE Estepárias PT

ZPE de Castro Verde

Zona de Protecção Especial de Castro Verde (PTZPE0046)

A Zona de Protecção Especial (ZPE) de Castro Verde, criada em 1999 e posteriormente alargada em 2008, é a área estepária mais representativa de Portugal, com 85.345 ha de área total e cerca de 60.000 ha de pseudo-estepe. Abrange território de 6 municípios: Aljustrel (19%), Almodôvar (4%), Beja (12%), Castro Verde (85%), Mértola (8%) e Ourique (3%).
A paisagem da ZPE de Castro Verde é dominada por planícies com suaves ondulações, que cobrem extensas áreas de baixa altitude (entre os 100 e os 300 m). Os vales de cursos de água e os afloramentos rochosos de quartezite marcam pontualmente a paisagem. O solo é pouco profundo, com muito pouca matéria orgânica, sendo descrito como "esquelético".
Nesta ZPE predominam as práticas agrícolas extensivas, sendo o sistema agrícola tradicional baseado no cultivo extensivo de cereais de sequeiro num esquema de rotação com pousios, resultando num mosaico anual de searas, alqueives, restolhos e pousios. Os pousios são geralmente utilizados como pastagens para o gado ovino e bovino. Nesta ZPE existem também montados de azinho, matos e pequenos olivais.
A diversidade e abundância de aves estepárias são responsáveis pelo estatuto de protecção desta ZPE. A ZPE de Castro Verde é a área mais importante de Portugal para a conservação de aves estepárias, em particular da Abetarda (Otis tarda) e do Peneireiro-das-torres (Falco naumanni). Mais de 80% da população nacional de Abetarda (Pinto et al. 2005) e 70% da população reprodutora de Peneireiro-das-torres (Henriques et al. 2006) estão concentradas nesta região. Esta ZPE é sem dúvida a mais importante para a conservação do Sisão durante a época reprodutora em Portugal, pois ocorre aqui mais de metade dos machos reprodutores estimados para a espécie (Silva & Pinto 2006).
Esta ZPE alberga também importantes populações de Cortiçol-de-barriga-negra (Pterocles orientalis), Calhandra-real (Melanocorypha calandra), Alcaravão (Burhinus oedicnemus) e Tartaranhão-caçador (Circus pygargus) e é ainda uma área de reprodução da Águia-de-Bonelli (Aquila fasciata) e a principal área de reprodução do Rolieiro (Coracias garrulus) em Portugal.
Durante o Inverno encontram-se importantes densidades de Grous (Grus grus), Abibes (Vanellus vanellus), Tarambola-dourada (Pluvialis apricaria) e Laverca (Alauda arvensis). Há uma presença regular de aves de presa invernantes como o Milhafre-real (Milvus milvus) e o Tartaranhão-azulado (Circus cyaneus). Os pousios e pastagens são zonas importantes de alimentação para o Abutre-preto (Aegypius monachus), Grifo (Gyps fulvus), Águia-imperial (Aquila adalberti) e Águia-real (Aquila chrysaetus) (ICNB 2006).



Projecto LIFE Estepárias
» Apresentação
» Enquadramento
» Principais ameaças à Conservação
» Áreas de Intervenção Geográfica
» Parceiros e Apoios
traco_green_vert.gif (107 bytes)
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